This page gives access to my peer-reviewed academic papers. I have also written a number of books (see here for more details), and a series of more general essays called Hanging On To The Edges (which you can access here).

The papers appear on this page in a single list in approximately reverse-chronological order. The numbering relates to this complete bibliography. If instead you would like to see the key papers organized by topic keyword, go here.

153 Bedford, T., Oliver, C.J., Andrews, C., Bateson, M. and Nettle, D. (2017). Effects of early-life adversity and sex on dominance in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Animal Behaviour , 128: 51-60 . Download   Data and R script.

152 Nettle, D. (2017). Does hunger contribute to socioeconomic gradients in behaviour?. Frontiers in Psychology , 8: 358. Download  

151 Hartman, S., Li, Z., Nettle, D., & J. Belsky (2017). External-environmental and internal-health early-life predictors of adolescent development. Development and Psychopathology , in press: . Download  

150 Pepper, G. V. and D. Nettle (2017). The behavioural constellation of deprivation: Causes and consequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , : . Download   This is a target article undergoing commentary.

149 Nettle, D. and M. Bateson (2017). Detecting telomere elongation: Analysis of a proposal by Simons, Stulp and Nakagawa. PeerJ , 5: e3265. Download  

148 Nettle, D., C. Andrews, S. Reichert, T. Bedford, C. Kolenda, C. Parker, C. Martin-Ruiz, P. Monaghan, M. Bateson (2017). Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling. Scientific Reports , 7: 40794. Download   Data and R script

147 Bateson, M. and D. Nettle (2017). The telomere lengthening conundrum: It could be biology. Aging Cell , 16: 213-9. Download   Supporting information

146 Nettle, D., Andrews, C., Reichert, S., Bedford, T., Gott, A., Parker, C., Kolenda, C., Martin-Ruiz, C., Monaghan, P. and Bateson, M. (2016). Brood size moderates associations between relative size, telomere length, and immune development in European starling nestlings. Ecology and Evolution , 6: 8138-48. Download   Data and R code

145 Nettle, D., C.P. Andrews and M. Bateson (2017). Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis. . Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 40: e105. Download   Code and data.

144 Frankenhuis, W.E., K. Panchanathan and D. Nettle (2016). Cognition in harsh and unpredictable environments. Current Opinion in Psychology , 7: 76-80. Download  

143 Smith, J.E., Gavrilets, S., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Hooper, P.L., Mouden, C.E., Nettle, D., Hauert, C., Hill, K., Perry, S., Pusey, A.E., van Vugt, M. and Smith, E.A. (2016). Leadership in mammalian societies: emergence, distribution, power, and payoff. Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 31: 54-66. Download   Supplementary information

142 Nettle, D., C.P. Andrews, P. Monaghan, B.O. Brilot, T. Bedford, R. Gillespie and M. Bateson (2015). Developmental and familial predictors of adult cognitive traits in the European starling. Animal Behaviour , 107: 239-48. Download   Code and data here

141 Bateson, M., M. Emmerson, G. Ergün, P. Monaghan and D. Nettle (2015). Opposite effects of early-life competition and developmental telomere attrition on cognitive biases in juvenile European starlings. PLoS ONE , 10: e0132602. Download   Data

140 O’Hagan, D., C. P. Andrews, T. Bedford, M. Bateson and D. Nettle (2015). Early life disadvantage strengthens flight performance trade-offs in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Animal Behaviour , 102: 141-8. Download   Data and supplementary tables.

139 Adams, J., E. Stamp, D. Nettle, E.M.G. Milne and C. Jagger (2015). Anticipated survival and health behaviours in older English adults: Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PLoS ONE , 10: e0118782. Download  

138 Nettle, D. and M. Bateson (2015). Adaptive developmental plasticity: What is it, how can we recognize it and when can it evolve?. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 282: 20151005. Download  

137 Bateson, M. and D. Nettle (2015). Development of a cognitive bias methodology for measuring low mood in chimpanzees. PeerJ , 3: e998. Download   Data

136 Páal, T., T. Carpenter and D. Nettle (2015). Childhood socioeconomic deprivation, but not current mood, is associated with behavioural disinhibition in adults. PeerJ , 3: e964. Download   Data

135 Schroeder, K.B., R. McElreath and D. Nettle (2015). Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans. . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 370: 20150011. Download  

134 Clutterbuck, S., J. Adams and D. Nettle (2015). Frequent residential relocations cumulatively accelerate menarcheal timing in a sample of English adolescent girls. Journal of Biosocial Science , 47: 188-202. Download  

133 Bateson, M., B.O. Brilot, R. Gillespie, P. Monaghan and D. Nettle (2015). Developmental telomere attrition predicts impulsive decision-making in adult starlings. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 282: 20142140. Download   Data here

132 Bateson, M., R. Robinson, T. Abayomi-Cole, J. Greenlees, A. O'Connor and D. Nettle (2015). Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: Evidence from two field experiments. PeerJ , 3: e1443. Download   Data

131 Andrews, C., J. Viviani, E. Egan, T. Bedford, B. Brilot, D. Nettle, and M. Bateson (2015). Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Animal Behaviour , 109: 123-32. Download   Data and R code

130 Nettle, D., P. Monaghan, R. Gillespie, B. Brilot, T. Bedford, and M. Bateson (2015). An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 282: 20141610. Download   Data

129 Pepper, G. V. and D. Nettle (2014). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviour: An evolutionary perspective. Applied Evolutionary Anthropology: Darwinian Approaches to Contemporary World Issues (D. W. Lawson & M. Gibson eds.) , : 225-43. Download  

127 Pepper, G.V. and D. Nettle (2014). Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: Testing a behavioral ecological prediction. Human Nature , 25: 378-92. Download  

126 Hill, J.M., Jobling, R., Pollet, T.V. and Nettle, D. (2014). Social capital across urban neighborhoods: A comparison of self-report and observational data. . Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences , 8: 59-69. Download  

125 Hill J, T.V. Pollet and D. Nettle (2014). Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not. PeerJ , 2: e287. Download   Supplemental information

124 Nettle, D., G.V. Pepper, R. Jobling and K.B. Schroeder (2014). Being there: A brief visit to a neighbourhood induces the social attitudes of that neighbourhood. PeerJ , 2: e236. Download   Data

123 El Mouden, C., J-B André, O. Morin and D. Nettle (2014). Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: A general approach based on the Price equation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 27: 231-41. Download   Supporting information

122 Clutterbuck, S., J. Adams and D. Nettle (2014). Childhood adversity accelerates intended reproductive timing in adolescent girls without increasing interest in infants. PLoS ONE , 9: e85013. Download   Data

121 Nettle, D (2014). What the future held: Childhood psychosocial adversity is associated with health deterioration through adulthood in a cohort of British women. Evolution and Human Behavior , 35: 519-25. Download  

120 Bateson, PPG and D Nettle (2014). Playfulness, ideas and creativity: A survey. Creativity Research Journal , 26: 219-22. Download  

119 Pepper, G. V. and D. Nettle (2014). Out of control mortality matters: The effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision. PeerJ , 2: e459. Download   Supporting information and data

118 Schroeder, K.B., G.V. Pepper and D. Nettle (2014). Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: A study of two urban neighborhoods. PeerJ , 2: e450. Download  

117 Fathi, M., M. Bateson and D. Nettle (2014). Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment. Evolutionary Psychology , 12: 878-87. Download  

116 Rickard, I.J., W.E. Frankenhuis and D. Nettle (2014). Why are childhood family factors associated with timing of maturation? A role for internal prediction. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 9: 3-15. Download  

115 Adams, J., E. Stamp, D. Nettle, E.M.G Milne and C. Jagger (2014). Socioeconomic position and the association between anticipated and actual survival in older English adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , 68: 818-25. Download  

114 Bloxham, L., M. Bateson, T. Bedford, B. Brilot and D. Nettle (2014). The memory of hunger: Developmental plasticity of dietary selectivity in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris. Animal Behaviour , 91: 33-40. Download   Appendices and data

113 Nettle, D., T.E. Dickins, D.A. Coall and P. de Mornay Davies (2013). Patterns of physical and psychological development in future teenage mothers. Evolution, Medicine and Public Health , 1: 187-96. Download  

112 Nettle, D., P. Monaghan, W. Boner, R. Gillespie, and M. Bateson (2013). Bottom of the heap: Having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris. PLoS ONE , 8: e83617. Download   Data

111 Bateson, M., L. Callow, J.R. Holmes, M.L. Redmond Roche, and D. Nettle (2013). Do images of 'watching eyes' induce behaviour that is more pro-social or more normative? A field experiment on littering. PLoS ONE , 8: e82055. Download   Data

110 Pepper, G. V. and D. Nettle (2013). Death and the time of your life: Experiences of close bereavement are associated with steeper financial future discounting and earlier reproduction. Evolution and Human Behavior , 34: 433-9. Download  

109 Nettle, D., K. A. Cronin and M. Bateson (2013). Responses of chimpanzees to cues of conspecific observation. Animal Behaviour , 86: 595-602. Download   Data

108 Nettle, D., M.A. Gibson, D.W Lawson and R. Sear (2013). Human behavioral ecology: Current research and future prospects. Behavioral Ecology , 24: 1031-40. Download  

107 Nettle, D., W.E. Frankenhuis and I.J. Rickard (2013). The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 280: 20131343. Download  

106 Kareklas, K., D. Nettle and T.V. Smulders (2013). Water-induced finger wrinkling improves handling of wet objects. Biology Letters , 9: 20120999. Download  

105 Schroeder, K. B., R. McElreath and D. Nettle (2013). Variants at serotonin transporter and 2A receptor genes predict cooperative behavior differentially according to presence of punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , 110: 3955-60. Download  

104 Stulp, G., A. P. Buunk, T.V. Pollet, D. Nettle, and S. Verhulst (2013). Are human mate preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?. PLoS ONE , 8: e54186. Download  

103 Nettle, D., Z. Harper, A. Kidson, R. Stone, I.S. Penton-Voak, and M. Bateson (2013). The watching eyes effect in the Dictator Game: It's not how much you give, it's being seen to give something. Evolution and Human Behavior , 34: 35-40. Download  

102 Sylwester, K., Lyons, M., Buchanan, C., Nettle, D., Roberts, G. (2012). The role of Theory of Mind in assessing cooperative intentions. Personality and Individual Differences , 52: 113-7. Download  

099 Nettle, D., K. Nott and M. Bateson (2012). 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': Impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft. PLoS ONE , 7: e51738. Download  

098 Nettle, D., R. Coyne and A. Colleony (2012). No country for old men: Street use and social diet in urban Newcastle. Human Nature , 23: 375-85. Download  

097 Powell, K., G. Roberts and D. Nettle (2012). Eye images increase charitable donations: evidence from an opportunistic field experiment in a supermarket. Ethology , 118: 1096-101. Download  

096 Nettle, D. and M. Bateson (2012). Evolutionary origins of mood and its disorders. Current Biology , 22: R712-21. Download  

095 Brilot, B.O., M. Bateson, D. Nettle, M.J. Whittingham and J.C.A. Read (2012). When is general wariness favored in avoiding multiple predator types?. American Naturalist , 179: E180-95. Download  

094 Pollet, T.V., M. Nelissen and D. Nettle (2012). A 'gendered need' explanation does not fully explain lineage based differences in grandparental investment found in a large British cohort study. Journal of Biosocial Science , 44: 377-81. Download  

093 Nettle, D. (2012). Social scale and structural complexity in human language. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B , 367: 1829-36. Download  

092 Nettle, D. (2012). Behavior of parents and children in two contrasting urban neighborhoods: An observational study. Journal of Ethology , 30: 109-16. Download  

091 Bateson, M., B. Brilot and D. Nettle (2011). Anxiety: An evolutionary approach. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry , 56: 707-15. Download  

088 Stulp, G., Verhulst, S., Pollet, T.V., Nettle, D., Buunk, A.P. (2011). Parental height differences predict the need for an emergency caesarean section. PLoS ONE , 6: e20497. Download  

087 Clegg, H., D. Nettle and D. Miell (2011). Status and mating success amongst visual artists. Frontiers in Psychology , 2: 310. Download  

086 Nettle, D., A. Colleony and M. Cockerill (2011). Variation in cooperative behaviour within a single city. PLoS ONE , 6: e26922. Download  

085 Nettle, D., K. Panchanathan, T. Rai and A. Fiske (2011). The evolution of giving, sharing and lotteries. Current Anthropology , 52: 747-56. Download  

084 Nettle, D. (2011). Large differences in publicly visible health behaviours across two neighbourhoods of the same city. PLoS ONE , 6: e21051. Download  

083 Nettle, D., D.A. Coall and T. E. Dickins (2011). Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 278: 1721-7. Download  

082 Ernest-Jones, M., D. Nettle and M. Bateson (2011). Effects of eye images on everyday cooperative behavior: a field experiment. Evolution and Human Behavior , 32: 172-8. Download  

081 Nettle, D. (2011). Flexibility in reproductive timing in humans: Integrating ultimate and proximate explanations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences , 366: 357-65. Download  

080 Nettle, D. and L. Penke (2010). Personality: Bridging the literatures from psychology and behavioural ecology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences , 365: 4043-50. Download  

078 Nettle, D. (2010). Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology. PLoS ONE , 5: e13371. Download  

077 Nettle, D. and M. Cockerill (2010). Development of social variation in reproductive schedules: A study from an English urban area. PLoS ONE , 5: e12690. Download  

076 Nettle, D. (2010). Understanding of evolution may be improved by thinking about people. Evolutionary Psychology , 8: 205-28. Download  

075 Nettle, D. (2010). Dying young and living fast: Variation in life history across English neighbourhoods. Behavioral Ecology , 21: 387-95. Download  

074 Nettle, D., D.A. Coall and T.E.Dickins (2010). Birthweight and paternal involvement predict early reproduction in British women: Evidence from the National Child Development Study. American Journal of Human Biology , 22: 172-9. Download  

073 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2010). No evidence for the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis from British and rural Guatemalan data. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology , 8: 57-74. Download  

071 Watts, G. and D. Nettle (2010). The role of anxiety in vaginismus: A case-control study. Journal of Sexual Medicine , 7: 143-8. Download  

067 Nettle, D., D.A. Coall and T.E.Dickins (2009). Ecological influences on human behavioural diversity: A review of recent findings. Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 24: 218-24. Download  

066 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2009). Birth order and adult family relationships: Firstborns have better sibling relationships than laterborns. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships , 26: 1029-46. Download  

065 Nettle, D. (2009). Social class differences in behaviour in Britain: The view through the evolutionary lens. The Psychologist , 22: 934-7. Download  

064 64. Pollet, T.V., T.W. Fawcett, A. P. Buunk and D. Nettle (2009). Sex-ratio biasing towards daughters among lower-ranking cowives in Rwanda. Biology Letters , 5: 765-8. Download  

063 Nettle, D. (2009). An evolutionary model of low mood states. Journal of Theoretical Biology , 257: 100-3. Download  

062 Nettle, D. (2009). Beyond nature versus culture: Cultural variation as an evolved characteristic. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 15: 223-40. Download  

061 Pollet, T.V., M. Nelissen and D. Nettle, D. (2009). Lineage differences in grandparental investment: Evidence from a large British cohort. Journal of Biosocial Science , 41: 355-79. Download  

060 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2009). Market forces affect patterns of polygyny in Uganda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , 106: 2114-7. Download  

057 Adams, J. and D. Nettle (2009). Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: An empirical study. British Journal of Health Psychology , 14: 83-105. Download  

055 Nettle, D. and T.V. Pollet (2008). Natural selection on male wealth in humans. American Naturalist , 172: 658-66. Download  

054 Nettle, D. (2008). Why do some dads get more involved than others? Evidence from a large British cohort. Evolution and Human Behaviour , 29: 416-23. Download  

053 Nettle. D. and B. Liddle (2008). Agreeableness is related to social-cognitive, but not social-perceptual, theory of mind. European Journal of Personality , 22: 323-35. Download  

052 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2008). Taller women do better in a stressed environment: Height and reproductive success in rural Guatemalan women. American Journal of Human Biology , 20: 264-9. Download  

051 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2008). Driving a hard bargain: Sex ratio and male marriage success in a historical U.S. population. Biology Letters , 4: 31-3. Download  

050 Nettle, D., J. Grace, M. Choisy, H. Cornell, J-F. Guegan and M. Hochberg (2007). Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability. PLoS ONE , 2: e929. Download  

047 Nettle, D. (2007). A module for metaphor? The site of imagination in the architecture of the mind. Proceedings of the British Academy , 147: 269-74. Download  

046 Farrelly, D. and D. Nettle (2007). Marriage affects competitive performance in male tennis players. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology , 5: 141-8. Download  

045 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2007). Maternal grandmothers do go the extra mile: factoring distance and lineage into differential contact with grandchildren. Evolutionary Psychology , 5: 832-43. Download  

044 Pollet, T.V. and D. Nettle (2007). Birth order and face-to-face contact with a sibling: Firstborns have more contact than laterborns. Personality and Individual Differences , 43: 1796-1806. Download  

043 Nettle, D. (2007). Empathizing and systemizing: What are they, and what do they contribute to our understanding of psychological sex differences? . British Journal of Psychology , 98: 237-55. Download  

042 Nettle, D. (2006). Language: Costs and benefits of specialised system for social information transmission. Social Information Transmission and Human Biology (J. Wells, S. Strickland and K. Laland eds). , : 137-52. Download  

041 Bateson, M., G. Roberts and D. Nettle (2006). Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology Letters , 3: 412-4. Download  

040 Liddle, B. and D. Nettle (2006). Higher-order theory of mind and social competence in school-age children. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology , 4: 231-46. Download  

040 Pollet, T.V., Nettle, D. and Nelissen, M. (2006). Contact frequencies between grandparents and grandchildren in a modern society. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology , 4: 231-46. Download  

039 Nettle, D. (2006). The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. American Psychologist , 61: 622-31. Download  

037 Nettle, D. (2006). Schizotypy and mental health amongst artists, poets and mathematicians. Journal of Research in Personality , 40: 876-90. Download  

036 Nettle, D. and H. Clegg (2006). Schizotypy, creativity, and mating success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences , 273: 611-5. Download  

035 Nettle, D. (2006). Psychological profiles of professional actors. Personality and Individual Differences , 40: 375-83. Download  

034 Haselton, M.G. and D. Nettle (2006). The paranoid optimist: An integrative evolutionary model of cognitive bias. Personality and Social Psychology Review , 10: 47-66. Download  

031 Roberts, K.H., Munafo, M.R., Rodriguez, D., Drury, M., Murphy, M.F.G, Neale, R., and D. Nettle (2005). Longitudinal analysis of the effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on subsequent smoking behaviour of offspring. Nicotine and Tobacco Research , 7: 1-8. Download  

030 Fessler, D.M.T., D. Nettle, Y. Afshar, I. de Andrade Pinheiro, A. Bolyanatz, M.e Borgerhoff Mulder, M. Cravalho, T. Delgado, B. Gruzd, M. Oliveira Correia, D. Khaltourina, A. Korotayev, J. Marrow, L. Santiago de Souza, and A. Zbarauskaite (2005). A cross-cultural investigation of the role of foot size in physical attractiveness. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 34: 267-76. Download  

029 Nettle, D. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the extraversion continuum. Evolution and Human Behavior , 26: 263-73. Download  

028 Joinson, C. and D. Nettle (2005). Season of birth and sensation-seeking in an adult population. Personality and Individual Differences , 38: 859-70. Download  

027 Nettle, D. (2005). The wheel of fire and the mating game: Exploring the foundations of drama. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology , 3: 39-56. Download  

024 Nettle, D. (2004). Evolutionary origins of depression: A review and reformulation. Journal of Affective Disorders , 81: 91-102. Download  

023 Nettle, D. (2003). Intelligence and class mobility in the British population. British Journal of Psychology , 94: 551-61. Download  

022 Stiller, J., D. Nettle, and R.I.M. Dunbar (2003). The small world of Shakespeare’s plays. Human Nature , 14: 397-408. Download  

021 Nettle, D. (2003). Hand laterality and cognitive ability: A multiple regression approach. Brain and Cognition , 52: 390-8. Download  

020 Nettle, D. and L. Harriss (2003). Genetic and linguistic affiliations amongst human populations in Africa and Eurasia. Human Biology , 75: 331-44. Download  

019 Nettle, D. (2002). Height and reproductive success in a cohort of British men. Human Nature , 13: 473-91. Download  

018 Nettle, D. (2002). Women’s height, reproductive success and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in modern humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences , 269: 1919-23. Download  

017 Nettle, D. (2000). Linguistic fragmentation and the wealth of nations: The Fishman-Pool hypothesis re-examined. Economic Development and Cultural Change , 48: 335-48. Download  

012 Nettle, D. (1999). Linguistic diversity of the Americas can be reconciled with a recent colonization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , 96: 3325-9. Download  

011 Nettle, D. (1999). Using Social Impact Theory to simulate language change. Lingua , 108: 95-117. Download  

010 Nettle, D. (1999). Is the rate of linguistic change constant? . Lingua , 108: 119-36. Download  

009 Nettle, D. (1998). Explaining global patterns of language diversity. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , 17: 354-74. Download  

007 Nettle, D. (1998). Coevolution of phonology and the lexicon in twelve languages of West Africa. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics , 5: 240-5. Download  

006 Nettle, D. (1997). On the status of methodological individualism: A commentary. Current Anthropology , 38: 283-6. Download  

005 Nettle, D. and R.I.M. Dunbar (1997). Social markers and the evolution of reciprocal exchange. Current Anthropology , 38: 93-9. Download  

004 Nettle, D. (1996). Language diversity in West Africa: An ecological approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , 15: 403-38. Download  

003 Nettle, D. (1995). Segmental inventory size, word length, and communicative efficiency. Linguistics , 33: 359-67. Download  

002 Dunbar, R.I.M, N. Duncan & D. Nettle (1995). Size and structure of freely-forming conversational groups. Human Nature , 6: 67-78. Download  

001 Nettle, D. (1994). A behavioural correlate of phonological structure. Language and Speech , 37: 425-9. Download